MARTIN LUTHER (1458-1546)
- Leader of he Protestant reformation and founder of the Lutheran Church
- Posted his “Ninety-Five Theses” in 1517
- The service in German instead of Latin and engaging the congregation by replacing elaborate polyphonic settings of the mass with simpler music: German chorales with monophonic hymn tunes that were easy to sing
- Because of the translated bible the congregation could now actively participate in the music of the service using their native language.
- 16TH Christian reform movement in Europe
- Led by Martin Luther
- Resulted in formation of many new Protestant denominations
- Mid 16th reaction of the Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation
- The Church’s attempt to win back support and regain political power
- Response to challenges to authority included the Council of Trent.
COUNCIL OF TRENT:
- A series of meeting of the highest Catholic Church officials
- Took place in Trento, Italy from 1545-1563
- Condemned “Protestant heresies “and reaffirmed the doctrines of Catholicism
· Recommendations regarding liturgical music included:
o The text should be audible
o The counterpoint should not be dense
o Except for organ, instruments should not be used
o Harmonic writing should avoid intense chromaticism
o Use of secular cantus firmus banned (forbidden)
o Displays of virtuosity should be avoided.