The Blog


• More “romantic” elements
• Increased use of chromatic harmony and abrupt modulations
• Expanded the development and Coda sections in his sonata- form movements
• Replaced the minuet and trio with scherzo and trio
• Experimented with cyclical form
• Linked movements together
• Expanded the orchestra to include piccolo, trombone and contrabassoon
• Fidelio (opera), violin concerto, symphonies nos 3 and 8

• Style became more abstract and meditative
• Employed counterpoint more frequently, including fugal writing
• Experimented further with form and content (SATB soloists and chorus to the final movement of symphony no 9)
• Frequent use of variation technique
• Representative works: piano sonatas, opp.109, 110,111. Missa solemnis, symphony no 9 “Choral”
• Solo piano works: 32 piano sonatas, “Pathetique”, “Moonlight”, “Waldstein”, “Appassionata”, “Tempest”, “Hammerklavier”, many smaller scaled works “Fur Elise”
• Symphonies: 9, no3”Eroice”, no 6 “ Pastoral”, no 9 “Choral”
• Overtures: Egmont and Leonora
• Concertos: 5 piano “Emperor no 5”, 1 violin concerto, 1 triple concerto for piano violin and cello
• Chamber : large variety, 18 string quartets, 10 sonatas for violin and piano, piano trios “Ghost” and “Archduke”
• Opera :1 Fidelio
• Other vocal works: mass –Missa solemnis; oratorio- The Mount of Olives, song cycle- An die ferne Geliebte (To the Distance Beloved)

• Ensemble music had been popular from the Renaissance (consorts and ensembles) and through the Baroque period
• In the Classical era with the increase in amateur music- making, chamber music increased in importance
• Music for small ensemble
• One player per part
• Most popular ensembles in the Classical era were the duo sonata, string quartet, piano trio

FRANZ SCHUBERT (1797-1828)
• Combined classical and romantic traits
• Classical trait:
1. Approach to formal structures, for eg. Sonata from with a repeated exposition
2. Choice of forms and genres, for eg. Symphony, sonata, piano trio, string quartet
3. Symmetrical phrase structures
4. Size and makeup of orchestra

Romantic traits:
1. Use of chromatic harmony
2. Juxtaposition of major and minor tonality
3. Unexpected modulations
4. Cultivation(promotion) of Lied, lyrical piano pieces (impromptus, moments musicaux)
5. Choice of poems
6. Interest in supernatural, nature, folk elements
7. Melodic lyricism
• Influence by Mozart (lyrical melodic style) and Beethoven (symphonic writing)
• Influenced by German Romantic poets, especially Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
• Close connection between text and music n art songs: uses harmony to highlight key words (word painting)
• Increased role of piano in art songs : piano accompaniment often depicts specific elements of the poem
• Introduced new psychological intensity into individual songs and song cycles
• Vocal lyricism pervaded all of his works
• Sorrow and deeply personal emotions are reflected in may works(“Death and the Maiden ‘quartet, Winterreise, Fantasy in F Minor)
• Turned to his own Lieder as a source of inspiration for new composition (eg. `Death and the Maiden `quartet, Wanderer Fantasy, and the “Trout“ quintet)

• 600 Lieder, An die Musik, Standchen, Die Ferelle, Heidenroslein, Ave Maria
• Song cycle: Winterreise, Die Schone Mullerin
• Symphonies: 9 , no 8 “ Unfinished“, no 9 “The Great`
• Chamber music : 15 string quartets (‘‘Death and the Maiden‘‘) the ‘‘Trout ‘‘ quintet, piano trios, octet for winds, duo sonatas
• Piano works: sonatas impromptus, moment musicales, variations, dances, duets,
• Choral music :7 masses
• Operas: Fierrabras