WOODWOND INSTRUMENT– all aerophones, air vibrates within pipe that has finger holes along its length; embouchure- oral mechanism: lips lower jaw and facial muscles.
Flute– blowing across a mouth hole; is soprano voice, cool, expressive and brilliant in upper range; now made of silver alloy rather than wood; is cylindrical tube closed n one end; melody instrument, notes, scales, trills.
Piccolo– little flute; highest pitched instrument in orchestra; well heard even in orchestra ff.
Oboe– blowing into a mouthpiece fitted with double reed; made of wood; pastoral effect and nostalgic moods;
English horn– is an alto of oboe; wooden tube is wider and longer, ends are pear-shaped opening calls bells-soft and expressive sound.
Clarinet- blowing into a single reed mouth piece; chisel-shaped mouth piece; smooth, liquid tone, rapid scales, trills, repeated notes.
Bass clarinet– blowing into single reed mouth piece; octave lower range than clarinet; rich dark tone, wide dynamics range.
Bassoon– double reed instrument; low register tone, reedy;
Contrabassoon– lowest tone of woodwinds; double reed instrument.
Saxophone– blow single red instrument; conical bore and metal body of the brass instrument; common soprano, alto, tenor, baritone; popular music and jazz.
BRASS INSTRUMENT-aerophones; cap shaped mouth piece attached to a metal tubing that flares at the end into a bell;embouchure-oral mechanism lips and lower facial muscle jaw;
Trumpet– highest pitch;brilliant;clear sound;ceremonial display;
French horn– sift passage;RH insert in the bell(hand stops by plugging);blends with wood winds,brasses and strings.
Trombone – larger trumpet;rich tenor range;U shaped slide that alters the length of vibrating air column.
Tuba- is bass instrument;adds depthto orchestra tone; dark resonance ranging from softness to rumbling.
Cornet– marching band.
Bugle– military trumpet,no valves.
Fluegelhorn– valved bugle with wide bell;jazz and brass bands;
Euohonium– tenor range instruments,resemble tuba.
Sousaphone– adaptation of tuba designed by John Philipsousa