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PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT-accentuate rhythm;more excitement;two categories:definite pitch,indefinite pitch.
Timpani(kettledrums)-played insets of 2 or 4;has hemispheric copper shell head stretched of plastic or calfskin place by a metal ring;pedal changes tension of head;played by 2 padded sticks;arrived in western Europe from middle east.
Xylophone– used in Africa,southeast Asia, Americas;consists tuned blocks of wood or metal shaped like a keyboard;struck with mallets with hard head
Marimba– mellow xylophone in Africa origin.
Vibraphone– in jazz;xylophones with resonators containing disks operated by electric motors that exaggerate vibrato.
Glockenspiel(set of bells)– horizontal steel bars of various sizes struck produce bright,metallic sound.
Celesta – kinda glockenspiel operated by means of a keyboard;resemble miniature upright piano;steel plates struck by small hammers.
Chimes or tubular bells– sets of tuned metal tubes of various lengths suspended from frame;struck with hammer;simulate church bell.

Snare drum(side drum)- small cylindrical drum with 2 heads(top and bottom);played with 2 drumsticks;vibrates lower heard against taut snares(strings)
Tenor drum– larger in size,has wooden shell,no snares.
Bass drum– played larger soft headed sticks;produce low , heavy sound.
Tom-tom– native American or African drum.
Tambourine- round,hand-held drum with “jingles”(little metals plates inserted in rim);can be stroke by fingers or elbow,shake it, pass hand over the jingles.
Castanets- originated in Spain; little wooden clappers moved by player’s thrums and forefinger
Triangle– slender rod of steel bent into 3 cornered shape;struck by steel beater.
Cymbals– originated from central Asia in middle ages;arrived to west;2 large circular brass plates of equal sizes, struck against each other.
Gong(tam-tam)– circular disk of metal suspended in frame to hang freely;struck with heavy drumstick,deep roar;southeast Asia and far east known gamelan instrument.
Organ– a keyboard back to the middle ages often associates with church music;sound is generated by air passing through pipes or reeds.
Harpsichord– a keyboard popular from the late 16th through 18th centuries; sound is generated by small quills inside the instrument that pluck the strings.
Clavichord- a small keyboard popular from late 16th through 18th centuries; sound is generated by small metal tangents that strike the strings inside the instruments.
Piano- keyboard instrument invented early 18th century;sound is generated by hammers inside the instrument that strike the string.
Synthesizer- a device (usually played with a keyboard) that generates and modifies sounds electronically.Robert Moog popularized the synthesizer in the 1960.
(idiophones- sound produced from substance of instrument itself eg.bells,rattles,cymbals,xylophones)
(membranophones- drum-types,sound produced from tightly stretched membranes eg. Drum)
(aerophones- produced sound by using air eg.flutes,whistles,accordions,bagpipes,horns)
(chordophones- produced sound from vibrating string stretched btw 2 points eg.violin,guitar,harp,Japaneses koto)