THE POLYTEXTUAL MOTET IN THE 13TH CENTURY
• Developed in the 13th century
• An important stage in the development of polyphony
• New texts were added to the upper voices of Organum
• Secular texts often appeared alongside sacred texts, languages were mixed
• Usually in the 3 voices
• Bottom voice contained cantus firmus
• Featured primary intervals 4th, 5th and octaves
• Upper voices were generally more rhythmically active and often crossed parts.
SECULAR VOCAL MUSIC OF THE MIDDLE AGES
MONOPHONIC CHANSON- Chanson means “song”
• Flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries
• Composed by aristocratic poet-musicians known as trouveres and troubadours.
• Recorded in songbooks called chansonniers.
• Monophonic texture
• Modal melodies
• Usually in strophic form
• Instrumental accompaniments were often improvised
• Texts often reflected courtly love in the age of chivalry
• 14th century saw shift form church life to more secular society
• Famous treatise called Ars Nova- refer to the music and art of the time.(composer was Philippe de Vitry)
• Evolution of polyphony in both sacred and secular was by the perfection of pitch notation coupled with more sophisticated rhythmic notations.
• Elegant and courtly song –whatever form the poem took might be clearly reflected int he construction of the music.
PHILIPPE DE VIRTY(1291-1361)
• Was a French composer ,poet and bishop
• Author of the treatise Ars Nova(1322)
• Innovator of the notations of rhythm, including the “imperfect” and division of notes into 2 equal units(a move away from the division of notes into 3 equal units considered “perfect”)
• Broke free from older pattern and rhythmic modes
• Used isorhythm, the repetition of an extended pattern in which melodic patterns and rhythmic segments of different lengths are combined
• Latin for “new art”
• Title of a famous 14th century treatise by composer Philippe de Vitry
• The term is also used by historians when referring to music in 14th century France ( the 1300s)
• As a result, the previous era became known as Ars antique(old art)
GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT (CA 1300-1377)
• Most celebrated poet and musician in French Ars Nova
• Adopted both sacred and secular and wrote music for church and kings.
• Greater variety in intervals used , including 3rd, 6th and more counter points
• 14th century rhythmic complexity demonstrated in use of devices such as syncopation, hockets, and isorhythm
• Wrote both monophonic and polyphonic songs
• Monophonic chansons represent a continuation of the trouvere tradition, frequently wrote his own poetry
• Works are longer and more complex than of the Ars Antiqua.
• Composed 1st complete polyphonic setting of Mass Ordinary-Messe de Nostre Dame.
INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES
• Instruments were not standardized
• With the exception of the organ, the use of instruments was not encouraged in the Roman Catholic Church
• Instruments music was passed down through an oral tradition
• Musicians were trained to improvise and to play by rote rather than rely on written music
• Notating music was a time-consuming, costly and not considered necessary or important in a a largely illiterate society.
INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC FULFILLED ROLES AND FUNCTIONS IN SOCIETY:
• Accompanying singers
• Proving dance music
• Playing fanfares and precessions for public and civic functions
• Providing music for military campaigns.
• Indoor and outdoor instruments.
• Based on a tradition of improvisation
• Functional music :instrumentalists provided music for social dance; later stylized dances were created(for listening only)
• Had monophonic texture
• Modal melodies
• Accompaniments were improvised
• Estampie,saltarello,ronde and basse dance were the earliest types
• Formal structure was often sectional to allow for flexibility in the length of the dance.
CHANSONNEIR DU ROY
• French “Songbook of the King:
• Anonymous 13th century French manuscript
• Contains troubadour and trouvere songs as well as eight monophonic dances including “Royal Estampie No.4”