DOMENICO SCARLATTI (1685-1757)
• Was born in the same year just like J.S.Bach and G.F. Handel, he composed Italian operas, his fame for today rests on brilliant keyboard sonatas
• Technical challenges: hand crossings, arpeggiated figures, ornaments, repeated notes, and rapid passagework, sonatas in binary or rounded binary form.
• Brilliant harpsichordist
• Contributed to the development of idiomatic writing for harpsichord: rapid passagework, hand crossing, arpeggiated figures
• Frequent use of sequential passages
• Harmonic vocabulary also use of dissonance, acciaccaturas, suspensions, pedal point
• Absorbed international influence: Italian, Spanish, French
• Binary and round binary structures foreshadow sonata form
GENRES AND TITLES:
• Keyboard sonatas: over 500, Exercises for Harpsichord.
• Sacred work: Stabat mater, Salve regina
• Operas: Tolomeo et Alessandro.
PRE-CLASSICAL STYLE: lighter homophonic texture marked with elegant ornamentation and development of sonata form
CARL PHILIPP EMANUEL BACH (1714-1788)
• C.P.E Back was better known then his father, he worked at the court of Frederic the Great King of Prussia at Potsdam.
• Outstanding keyboard player, particularly on the harpsichord and clavichord
• Produced an enormous body of music :keyboard sonatas, concertos, symphonies, cantatas, oratorios
• Contributed to the development of sonata form
• Author of important treatise: Essay on the True of Playing Keyboard Instruments (published 1753) that served as a practical guide to all aspects of keyboard performances including the correct execution of ornaments.
WILHELM FRIEDEMANN BACH (1710-1784)
• A brilliant organist, he held distinguished posts in Dresden and Halle
• Renowned (well known) for his improvisational skills
• Composed numerous solo keyboard works, concertos, organ fugues, chamber music symphonies and cantatas
JOHANN CHRISTOPH BACH (1732-1795)
• Held a lifelong post at the court of Buckeburg
• Composed solo keyboard music, keyboard concertos, symphonies, cantatas, oratorios and operas
JOHANN CHRISTIAN BACH (1735 1782)
• Converted to Catholicism and served as organist at Milan Cathedral
• Spent his last 20 years in London where he serve as music master to Queen Charlotte; historians frequently refer as “the London Bach”, or “the English Bach”
• Composed large body of music , such as keyboard works, chamber music, symphonies, and operas
• Shaped the classical concertos
• Befriended the young Mozart and exerted a strong musical influence over him