PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT-accentuate rhythm;more excitement;two categories:definite pitch,indefinite pitch.
- Timpani(kettledrums)-played insets of 2 or 4;has hemispheric copper shell head stretched of plastic or calfskin place by a metal ring;pedal changes tension of head;played by 2 padded sticks;arrived in western Europe from middle east.
- Xylophone– used in Africa,southeast Asia, Americas;consists tuned blocks of wood or metal shaped like a keyboard;struck with mallets with hard head
- Marimba– mellow xylophone in Africa origin.
- Vibraphone– in jazz;xylophones with resonators containing disks operated by electric motors that exaggerate vibrato.
- Glockenspiel(set of bells)– horizontal steel bars of various sizes struck produce bright,metallic sound.
- Celesta – kinda glockenspiel operated by means of a keyboard;resemble miniature upright piano;sreels plates struck by small hammers.
- Chimes or tubular bells– sets of tuned metal tubes of various lengths suspended from frame;struck with hammer;simulate church bell.
- Snare drum(side drum)– small cylindrical drum with 2 heads(top and bottom);played with 2 drumsticks;vibrates lower heard against taut snares(strings)
- Tenor drum– larger in size,has wooden shell,no snares.
- Bass drum– played larger soft headed sticks;produce low , heavy sound.
- Tom-tom– native American or African drum.
- Tambourine– round,hand-held drum with “jingles”(little metals plates inserted in rim);can be stroke by fingers or elbow,shke it, pass hand over the jingles.
- Castanets– originated in Spain; little wooden clappers moved by player’s thumps and forefinger
- Triangle– slender rod of steel bent into 3 cornered shape;struck by steel beater.
- Cymbals– originated from central Asia in middle ages;arrived to west;2 large circular brass plates of equal sizes, struck against each other.
- Gong(tam-tam)– circular disk of metal suspended in frame to hang freely;struck with heavy drumstick,deep roar;southeast Asia and far east known gamelan instrument.