The Blog

19th Century Continues

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
• German poet, writer, and philosopher provided inspiration for generation of artists and musicians
• “ The sorrows of Young Werther”, “Egmont”,”Faust”


Napoleon Bonaparte
• Brilliant strategists and political leader in history
• Led France to become a dominant force in 19th century Europe
• “Napoleonic Code” was established for the foundation for European law


Caspar David Friedrich
• 19th century painter who embodies Romanticism in his landscapes; like “Wanderer Above the Mist”, “ The Abbey in the Oakwood”


Charles Dickens
• Popular English writer, his novels reflects idealism and harsh realities of 19th century life in England
• His classical works “ Oliver Twist”, “A Tale of Two Cities”, “ A Christmas Carol”, ”Great Expectations”


Elements of Romantic Musical Style

• Lyrical and expansive
• Influenced by folk song and dance

• Increased chromaticism
• Exploration for new tonal centers (mediant and submediant)
• Exploration of modal harmony

Formal Structure
• Development and formation of forms” Symphony, opera, song cycles
• Cyclical structure, linking of movements
• Development of miniature forms Lieder- character pieces for piano

Programmatic elements
• Popular in 19th century and instrumental music associated with literary, poetic, visual texts
• Titles that evokes specific images in the listener’s imagination
• Orchestral genres includes concert overture, symphonic poem, program symphony, and incidental music


  • “Music History” by J. Lopinski. J.Ringhofer,P.Zarins;
  • “The Enjoyment of Music 10th Edition” by K.Forney, J.Machlis.
  • pictures: from google website.