• Falls of Roman Empire and fall of Constantinople
• Development of western European culture called:”Dark Ages” – plagues, lawlessness, religious conflict and wars, and repressive feudal societies.
• The era broken into periods: early Christian, Romanesque, Gothic.
• Also referred as Medieval era meaning “between the ages”, because it separates classical antiquity from Renaissance.
• Charlemagne(ca 768- 814), the Carolingian Renaissance arts and culture lasting now in educational reforms
• Monks and nuns who lived in church are educated and familiar with Latin , served as teachers and scribers
• Knights –pledges their military skills for king and princess for their loyalty, bravery honour.
• Crusades or “Holy wars” to reclaim Jerusalem from Muslims began 1095 and lasted nearly 200 years
• War (13337- 1553) between England and France and the outbreak of bubonic plague (“The Black Death”)
• Music: 2 developments- rise of polyphony, and advancements in notations.
• 10000- 1450 better construction of great cathedral, Cities are centre of arts and culture
• Later Middle Ages – plagues by robbers and pirates:1.scandicavia furs and timber traded English wool,2.England wanted German silver,3.French and Italian wine
Texture- single line (monophony) to complex (multi voice-polyphony)
Notations – pitches and rhythm values notations are staying today
Melodic range – in medieval music narrow range, later more complex, melodic range increased rhythms – runs parallel to development of notation and polyphony.