UNIT FOUR: THE CLASSICAL ERA (CA 1750- CA 1825)
• Historians often refer to the late 18ht century as the Age of Enlightenment.
Era characterized by the pursuit of knowledge, rational thinking, and growing desire for equality among all people
Baroque era was replaced by Classical ideas of proportion, symmetry and balance.
Musicians, artists and architects in this era took their inspiration form the simplicity and clean lines of Greco-Roman architectural models.
Vienna is the capital of Austria
City stood at the crossroads between Europe and the East and attracted the leading artists, architects and writers and musicians of the day.
In 18th Vienna, Austria emerged as a musical center
Principal composers include Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven leader in the forging of the Classical style.
STRUM UND DRANG
High level of emotionalism and dealing with the individual’s revolt against society
2 writers use are Friedrich Schiller and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
German for “storm and stress”
Literary movement roughly spanning the years 1760-1785
Artistic aim was to frighten, shock or otherwise overwhelm the reader with emotion
Musically, it translated into passionate outburst and emphasis on minor keys
Evident in the music of the sons of Bach, Haydn, and Mozart
Developed from the 3 section Italian overture (fast slow fast)
Mannheim composers inserted the minuet and trio, thereby establishing the 4 movements sonata cycle
Incorporated the newly emerging sonata form
Composed with the 4 orchestral families in mind
Multi-movement orchestral work
Orchestra consisted of the 4 families: strings, winds, brass, and percussion
Generally had 4 contrasting movements as shown below
Group of composers active at the court of Mannheim, Germany in the latter half of the 18th
Leading figures included Karl Stamitz and Christian Cannabich
Developed the orchestral crescendo and rocket theme exerted a strong influence on the composers of the Viennese School